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Common Printed Circuit Board Defects

There are a number of inspection tools that were invented for the task of inspecting printed circuit board assembly. On the inner layer of the PCB assembly, the automatic optical inspection is applied just before the printed circuit board will be laminated.

After it is laminated, to ensure that the layers are aligned properly and there are no minor defects, an x-ray monitoring system will be used to scan through the PCB assembly. A laser scan will also be run onto the printed circuit board assembly. These methods and scanning procedures along with a visual inspection are made to ensure the preciseness of the PCB assembly.

However, there are times when even though all the necessary procedures to make a printed circuit board assembly are made, the final inspection of the printed circuit board will still be invaluable. The final inspection is considered as the most critical of all the procedures.

This process is executed in two ways simultaneously:

The manual and automatic methods. In the manual method, an inspector will be checking the completed printed circuit board and will judge whether there is a defect on the printed circuit board or not. For the automatic method, an automatic scanning system will be run onto the printed circuit board to spot any defect.

If a printed circuit board does not conform to the requirements or parameters, then it is considered as a defective one. Defects are classified depending on their degree or their severity and their effects to the performance of the printed circuit board.

printed circuit boardOne of the most common defects that affect a printed circuit board assembly is the wave soldering defect. Wave soldering is a soldering process where the electronic components are soldered to the board using a tank with molten solder. The electronic components are inserted on the printed circuit board. The loaded printed circuit board will then pass through a waterfall of solder which will moisten the exposed metallic parts of the device.

However, although this process is faster and provides high quality printed circuit boards compared to the manual process of soldering the electronic components, it can result to many different soldering defects such as the ones mentioned below:

• Bulbous joint

• Pin/Blow hole

• Lifted component

• Cracked joint

• Poor hole fill

• Flux residue

• Joint contamination

• Incomplete joint

• Lifted resist

• Lifted pads

• Pad contamination

• Poor solder ability

• Outgassing

• Solder ball

• Poor penetration

• Solder flags

• Sunken joint

• Solder skip

• Solder shorts

• Mask discoloration

Another common failure of a printed circuit board is an open circuit, which may be caused by a lot of different factors such as physical stress and poor quality control. A printed circuit board exposed to any vehicle may cause its electronic connection to either wear down or break down entirely. A low quality printed circuit board with a malformed vias or poor soldering work is a result of poor quality control during the processes of manufacturing and assembling.

To prevent these defects from happening, a visual inspection conducted on a regular basis is very important. The inspection should be conducted along with an x-ray imaging system to know where exactly the defective parts of the printed circuit board are. If the location of the defect is hard to detect, then a specialized process such as the Time Domain Reflectometry is used.

In performing a printed circuit board analysis, it is important to have a full understanding of the common printed circuit board defects. For most companies manufacturing printed circuit boards, it is essential to have people with extensive background and practice in the printed circuit board technology to be able to find the errors in a defective PCB assembly.

Compression In Golf Balls: Everything You Need to Know About It


It is no secret that a golf ball plays an important part in a golfer’s play. A lot of people, however, do not understand the concept of compression in golf balls. Basically, compression determines which ball is best used for various playing types. What exactly is compression? How does this affect a person’s game? Read on and find out.

How Compression Works

Compression is the density found in the ball and it will dictate how high it flies and how energy is transferred into it. This means that compression, along with the various types of balls, will play a major factor in your game and in improving your performance.

golf ballCompression occurs when the ball is struck with a club. Balls with a lower compression rating will result in the ball travelling farther down its intended trajectory. Also, compression determines how well a ball withstands the speed and impact of a club. Golf balls with a higher compression rate are known for their flexible cores. This only means that they have lesser chances of breaking or denting as they are continuously struck with a club.

Due to modern manufacturing standards, it is easy to determine the compression rating in a ball. A lot of manufacturers place markings either on the ball or on the package, to let golfers know a ball’s compression rating. This makes it easier for golfers to tell apart which balls are best, based on field conditions and their skill levels.

Compression Rates

Compression in golf is categorized from 70 to 100 with a lower number signifying a lower compression rate. A golf ball with a compression rate at 70 to 80 is recommended for novice players. This low compression rate allows the ball to travel a larger distance with minimal effort. Using these balls will allow novice players to shorten the time it takes to complete their courses.

On the other hand, golf balls with compression ratings at 81 to 100 are ideal for experienced or low-handicap players. Made from heavier material, these balls will require a golfer to exert more effort to make the ball fly at a wider distance. However, this allows for a better control over the ball’s trajectory for the golfer. For those concerned more on flying straight than flying high, balls at these compression rates are considered the best.

Playing Effectively

How does one effectively play with various compression rates? The answer lies in a few factors. Swing speed translates to the speed a person swings a club and strikes the ball. In turn, this will have very different effects on the ball depending on their compression rate.

Hitting the ball at a swing speed of 90mph or below will cause the ball to spring more off the club. If the ball has a low compression rate, it will travel at a wider distance. With additional backspin, golf balls with lower compression can travel a wider distance than intended. Conversely, striking a ball with a high compression rate will allow it to travel a lower distance. To lessen compression and maximize control, it is a must that a golfer generates a swing speed of 100mph and above.

Apart from swing speeds, the weather will play a role in determining the ideal compression rate. In colder weather, balls with higher compression rates will feel heavier due to constriction and density. However, they are best for windy weather as they have lesser chances of veering off course. On the other hand, golf balls with lower compression rates will be better in cold weather. Those come with a downside, though – they are very unreliable in windy conditions.

We have wide selection of golf balls, designed that become beneficial for the golf game and budget of any golfer.

Avoiding Getting Burned By A SEO Firm – Hiring The Right Fit


When you start to look for services online, you’re going to have a lot to consider. Never before has there been so many websites to cycle through for every search that you can try to configure. In the past, there was a time where you could do a bit of digging and find the right information, but today, you don’t need to dig too deep to find solutions to your enquiries. However, while there are a lot more choices to consider, you’re going to find that hiring someone to help you with a number of tech things can be rough. Right now there are millions of tech workers that are around the world, and each one is vying for position, haggling for gigs, and trying to find a way to get more opportunities to gain influence for themselves and their careers. With so many choices upon searching for workers in the tech world, you may run into a problem in the hiring process. This becomes ever so evident when searching for a good SEO Firm. Finding a good firm is tough at first, but you will find that you can get one with relative ease. Once hired, however, you need to make sure that you’re not taken for a ride, losing out on a lot of your budget because of issues related to marketing elements you can’t control. Getting burned by a firm is not fun, but it’s a possibility that you have to deal with in a lot of ways. To get more information about best quality SEO service providing firm must Visit URL.

Look For Reviews First

seoBefore you hire anyone or you interview anyone to help you gain marketing collateral, make sure that you look at reviews on them. Always check out the reviews of any SEO Firm that you want to hire, and if you don’t see anyone talking about them, it’s time to look at references. Do not allow yourself to lose sight of this, because if you do, you’re going to end up losing out. Without references or any reviews, you’re going to be blindly purchasing the services of a company that may or may not have your best interest in mind. This is something that is definitely problematic on a lot of levels, so make sure that you take your time figuring this out as a whole. Always look at references and reviews, even if you’re not going to hire a firm straightway. It will be a good exercise in finding workers to help you with promoting your page the right way.

Do Not Blindly Follow

When you hire people to market your website, it’s easy to let them handle everything, while you sit back and work on your own things. Do not just fold your arms and watch the optimization happen. Instead, be proactive and look at analytics, changes, and publishing things. The more you start to balance several elements together, the higher the chances are that you will get moving forward in the correct manner. Do not assume that you can just hire someone and leave them to their work. If you do that, you could be taken for a ride. Companies do exist that are going to take your money and do nothing major, then try to charge you more for extensive work within internet marketing. Do not just listen to what a company is offering, make sure that you look into what they are doing, and perhaps even ask for a full report of what’s going on.

Test The Campaigns

seo firmHiring a good SEO Firm is a way to get more attention on your site, but it is also a way that you could end up losing market share. Some people end up seeing a huge drop in traffic and marketability online because they don’t test the campaigns online. You have to test things out to see that they are going to work for your niche. If you do not go with a short term plan up front, your long term success can end up suffering. Don’t allow yourself to lose sight of this important element, as you will want to ensure that your testing gives you a fighting chance of moving ahead of the curve. Many people just hire someone to build their marketing collateral and they walk away. Don’t do that, instead, make sure that you have a clear line of results and see what you were expecting. If you take your time, you will end up with a huge push forward in terms of marketing elements.

The aforementioned are just some tips to ensure that you’re not taken for a ride when hiring a SEO Firm. There are a lot of people that will hire a professional in this arena and get taken for a lot of money. The reason why it’s so easy to lose money within this world is simple, you’re going to find that the issues are all related to the world of marketing conjecture. Since no one really knows what search engines are going to do next, and no one can see the algorithm that they use, you may very well get lost in the shuffle and end up with diminished returns on your investment.

Affordable Hewlett Harbor Real Estate

Hewlett Harbor properties are a little bit pricey because these estates are within a prestigious neighborhood with a welcoming atmosphere. Homes are built near luxurious country clubs and recognized golf courses. If you own a property that is valued at less than a million dollars in this community, you acquired an affordable property.

If you are looking forward to invest in a single-family property within this community, here’s a list of affordable Hewlett Harbor real estate choices available in the market today. If you want, see the more details in li realestatefinder for yourself.

A Gem on Magnificent Land

Price: $990,000

This 1957 beauty was built on a 28,139-square-foot lot. The house has a magnificent interior with four large bedrooms, three full bathrooms, and a powder room. The master bedroom has his-and-hers walk-in closets and bathrooms are newly renovated to complement the rooms and to update their functionality.

Real EstateIts eat-in kitchen has been updated with advanced and efficient appliances. It has a classic formal dining room, a living room with fireplace, and a beautiful sunroom. The property also features a two-car garage and a private driveway.

This has already appeared in a design magazine, a must-see Hewlett Harbor real estate option which is perfect for large families.

Charming Classic Colonial

Price: $749,000

This 11,586-square-foot Hewlett Harbor real estate option has a lovely landscape and a charming single-family house which is elegantly spacious. It has four wide bedrooms and three full bathrooms. It has a partially finished full basement, a classic dining room, a functional and dainty eat-in kitchen, an office, a wide living room, and a family room. It has a provision for a two-car garage, circular private driveway, and enclosed porch. It also has a sauna and wet bar. This property has high-quality finishing that is updated to increase functionality and showcase its classic interiors.

At the heart of Hewlett Harbor

Price: $735,000

This 1965 Colonial gem is located at the heart of Hewlett Harbor, a property that has great potential. It has five bedrooms, four full bathrooms, a powder room, an eat-in kitchen, an office, a basement, a colonial-inspired dining room, and family room. This property has a provision for two-car garage, a private driveway, bluestone deck, front porch, brick patio, and an in-ground pool. Don’t miss out on this rare opportunity.

Pretty Expanded Ranch

Price: $799,000

This Hewlett Harbor property has a lot area of 15,376 square feet and an approximate living space of 3,600 square feet. The expanded ranch was built in 1952 with entry foyer, six spacious bedrooms with cedar closets, three full bathrooms, and a powder room. Its functional eat-in kitchen has a recently constructed granite countertop. It has a living room with fireplace, a den, and a billiard room to entertain guests. It has a two-car garage, a basement, an office, an attic, and laundry room.

1952 Classic Charm

Price: $930,000

This is a beautiful property with 17,206 square feet in lot area. Its charming breakfast area complements the functional kitchen perfectly as they have a similar wall finish. It has four classically-designed bedrooms with two full bathrooms that look dainty and clean. It has a spacious living room and a den to entertain guests. It also has a basement, an attic, a two-car garage, a private driveway, and a provision for handicap access. This custom built home is a perfect starter home for any average-earning American.

Quick Ways to Become Motivational Speakers

A motivational speaker can deliver speeches and presentations on any subject matter. However, what counts the most is their limitless passion for a particular subject. You can become one of the best motivational speakers through identifying first your audience and the message you want to address, improving your public speaking skills, and marketing your speaking capabilities.

Identify your audience and message

• Choose a topic that you are comfortable sharing and speaking about. You can speak about engaging to better relationships, being happy and fulfilled, or improving your parenting skills. There are no limits in choosing a topic as long as you can inspire people to act and do something.

• Base your topic on your passions or something you believe and feel strongly about it. It will be challenging to motivate your audience if you do not care about your topic.

• Your message must be timely and relevant. Motivational speeches about pay phones or type writers will be ignored now that you are in the modern times.

• Be an expert of your chosen topic. Your audience expects a lot from you to know about the subject matter of your motivational speech. Study, read more, and stay updated in your field.

• Get to know your audience. Before you get too far in climbing up in your chosen career, understand the needs and wants of your audience. Plus, you have to be aware that different groups of people need to be communicated in various ways.

Improve your public speaking skills

• Enroll in public speaking programs. Check your local community college and other organizations that offer short courses on public speaking. Your goal in taking these classes is to be comfortable in talking and engaging to big groups.

• Record your speeches. This is the best way to evaluate and watch yourself perform. Through watching your performance, you can spot easily the things you need to improve and change.

• Look closely to the details that will motivate you. You definitely want to establish eye contact with your audience. You must start using the proper body language and sound motivational and natural.

Motivational Speaker• Improve your writing skills as well. Most motivational speakers are also great writers. They are also capable of supporting their speaking engagements with excellent and well written materials. Communication skills are important if you want to become one of the great and effective motivational speakers. When you have the opportunity, write a blog, publish your articles and keep your website updated. Continuous writing will not only enhance your motivational speaking skills but it will also be your avenue to connect with your readers and followers across the globe.

• Choose the best tool to use. Great motivational speakers invest on excellent presentations, large screens and workbooks whenever they deliver their powerful speeches. Ensure that you are going to choose a tool that works best for you that you can easily manage.

Market your speaking capabilities

• Look for a good venue. A motivational speech in an auditorium or a conference hall will be well-received compared to one that is delivered in a basement.

• The venue must be able to hold the size of your target audience. If you aim for an intimate interaction, a too big room will feel empty or a too small place will feel crowded.

• Come up with a marketing plan. Sell tickets at an affordable price. Build your brand through advertising at the local papers, send e-newsletters, and invest on postcards or brochures.

• Ensure to register your name with the speaker’s bureaus. Offer your services to organizers of seminars, conferences, and conventions.

• Encourage your audience to give feedback and testimonial about your speeches.

Make your speeches lively and fun. Encourage audience participation for adult participants. Initiating interaction is the perfect way to remember the activities you have prepared for your audiences.

Key Specifications of Portable Storage Containers to Research before Purchasing or Renting


Buyers have several reasons for renting or purchasing portable storage containers. Uses range from being additional storage spaces, instant offices, or for business purposes. However, the basic process of checking containers’ specifications should be kept in mind before getting one. Specifications to check include the following:


Aluminum and wood are the first materials that come into mind upon hearing about these storage containers. Nevertheless, large storage containers are heavy-duty storage solutions that guarantee buyers will find them useful for a long time. These containers are made from corrugated steel with various gauges. Usually, containers are built from 12-gauge steel for extra durability. Reinforced base comes with the container, strengthening its durability factors that withstand transportation and ensure content protection.

Overall external dimension

Inquiring about internal dimension space is a must to ensure the container will fit at your set location. Sellers’ commonly used measurements are in metric or in imperial units. External dimensions of containers range from around 2.4 meters in width, 6 meters in length, and around 2.5 meters in height. Depending on the seller, offered measurement variations change in terms of length and not the width. Some may have up to 12 meters in length, which are ideal for companies requiring extra space from portable storage containers.

Interior dimensions

The corrugated steel’s thickness causes differences between the exterior and interior dimensions. Hence, you’ll not get the actual interior floor space by simply looking at the exterior dimensions. Again, measurements vary depending on what the sellers offer. Studying exterior and interior measurements will show you around three inches up to a foot difference between the interior and exterior dimensions. However, the area measurement deduction is not that significant, which means you’ll still get a good interior space for storage.

Available colors

Some people buying portable storage containers want to get presentable color choices because they want to save time repainting their storage containers. Fortunately, sellers offer their containers pre-painted with presentable colors ranging from blue, red, maroon, beige and others. They don’t have the raw steel color, making them ideal for homes.

The good thing about these containers is they are easy to paint if buyers prefer to do so. Simply use a primer and chosen paint to suit your requirements.

Volume and weight capacity

Portable Storage containersWeight capacity is important for containers that will be transferred using trailers. Knowing weight capacity lets an owner know about how much weight the portable storage containers can store safely. Weight capacity varies on the container’s size and usually ranges from 58,000 up to 61,000 pounds.

Empty weight

As the term implies, empty weight is the container’s weight without stored items. Knowing this information is vital because it indicates whether it’s light for transportation. Buyers may transport the container themselves without assistance from the company and want to make sure if they can do the process themselves. They also want to know if their forklifts’ maximum weight limit can lift them up. Empty weight usually weighs from 4,000 to 9,000 pounds, which can be transported using a trailer.

Container’s condition

Verifying if the container is brand new or not gives you an idea about how much maintenance you need to extend your container’s shelf life. Sellers may have brand new containers, but you’ll often see refurbished containers from unused shipping containers. They are repainted and reinforced to last long for its new owners. Despite being second hand, these containers’ materials possess guaranteed durable properties, making them good investments for buyers.

Knowing the details about portable storage containers will guarantee you’ll get the right option for you. This will also give you an idea about the overall feature and other services you might need for transporting the container. You can find this information online by visiting the seller’s website.

Misting Fans and Air-Conditioners: The Ultimate Battle

Nothing spoils summer fun more than heat. People just can’t enjoy the days pass by with the heat uncomfortably creeping into their skins. However, while no one has the power to alter the course of nature, it’s easy to artificially shift the temperature of a certain area a couple notches down with cooling systems. Good thing, various types of cooling systems were invented to provide heat-ridden people the comfort they’ve always yearned for.

Two of the most popular cooling systems are misting fans and air-conditioners, both designed with different capabilities and specializations. But in the battle between human and environment, which one of the two is the better weapon?

Let the ultimate competition begin.

A Bird’s Eye View

misterMisting fans are like lite versions of air-conditioners meant for outdoors. However, they use a different mechanism compared to air-con systems, which make use of absorption refrigeration cycles. They are more like humidifiers, which operate via evaporative cooling. Evaporative cooling happens when water vapor evaporates and absorbs heat from the area at the same time.


  • Cost-effective and environment-friendly. If you want to cut down on energy costs and support the campaign in saving the environment, go for misting fans. These fans don’t release harmful gases like air-cons and are far less costly to operate and maintain.
  • Great indoors AND outdoors.The mist sprayed can be blown to cover large distances and provide relief for a large number of people. Perfect for any kind of occasion—be it a large outdoor event or an indoor family bonding activity—this misting fan can work wonders on the surrounding air.
  • Health benefits. These cooling systems are actually very useful not only in providing comfort to the people outdoors and the occasional passer-by but also in aiding the medication of certain medical conditions.People with nasal congestion, colds, dry and rough skin and respiratory problems benefit from a humidified environment.
  • Easier to organize and portable. While you need to seek help from professionals to assemble and install an air-conditioning system, fans can be bought straight from the store and manually operated. They can also be brought anywhere as they can stand alone. Personal misting fans, which are battery-operated, are also available in the market.

Air-conditioner: A Bird’s Eye View

mister  On the other hand, an air-conditioner is a major home appliance and cooling system designed to change the temperature and humidity of an enclosed area. It makes use of vapor-compression or refrigeration cycles, the same principle behind refrigerators. The components of an air-con work together through a continuous cycle of compression, condensation, expansion and evaporation which results to a reduced temperature and humidity.


Misting FanBetter cooling capability. Stores and shopping malls can’t be fully cooled up the way they are today with just fans everywhere. Large houses need to have a number of fans on each floor to achieve the cooling effect of a centralized air-con unit. Only air-conditioning units with their refrigeration cycles can effectively provide large shifts in temperature.

  • Safe for children. Most air-conditioning units are installed at window-level and cannot be reached by small children. The absence of rotating blades also makes air-cons far less of a safety hazard than fans.Plus,air-cons don’t have blades that constantly need cleaning.
  • Reduces humidity. While some prefer humidified surroundings, others find dehumidified ones better as it is more conducive to preventing mold growth. Also, dehumidification allows for faster drying of laundry clothes.

So, what’s the real score? The real score is that misting fans and air-conditioning units are equally capable battling the summer heat but are fit for different purposes and situations. If you want to enjoy a cold environment inside your house or room, you can go for an air-conditioning unit. But if you want something that’s portable, can be used outdoors, and can cool up your room well enough at a low cost, a misting fan is right for you.